Pocket K No.50:生物技术/转基因树

树木提供人类对食物的基本需求,燃料,以及在工业和制药领域的许多其他用途。它们可以在森林中自然生长,也可以与其他植物一起种植。随着当前对气候变化和全球变暖的关注,保护和养护树木已成为全球关注的焦点。这是因为众所周知,树木能够有效地隔离大气中的二氧化碳和其他温室气体,减缓全球变暖的速度。

一般来说,生物技术,and genetic engineering in particular,是公认有助于改善作物和树木的工具。转基因树木是通过重组DNA技术改良的木本植物。They are conferred with useful traits to lower production costs of wood products,提高生产力,通过创造合适的原材料,提高人工林的经济性,decreased pesticide use,disease resistance,以及退化土地的恢复。这些转基因树可能对木材有用,pulp and paper industry;保证水果的质量和营养;and improve forest covers.

工业用转基因树

Trees can be engineered to improve wood traits for various purposes.生长速度更快、密度更大的树,and straighter is desirable for lumber companies.这可以通过开发含有更多纤维素和更少木质素的树木来实现。这种树也可以用作非粮食作物为基础的生物燃料原料,很容易转化为液体燃料。

Futuragene公司开发了转基因桉树和杨树,这些树含有改变植物细胞壁结构以刺激自然生长过程的基因。2015年巴西批准商业化的转基因桉树一年能长5米,比普通桉树短时间内质量增加20%-30%2.由转基因桉树提供的增产将提供经济效益,环境的,以及对国家的社会福利。

火炬松用作木材,plywood and paper.Arborgena tree seedling company,开发出密度更高的转基因品种。树木中较高的木材密度通常与木材的强度和耐久性以及生物质使用的较高能量含量有关。The genes from Monterey pine,the American sweet gum tree,小鼠耳冠和e.大肠杆菌是通过基因枪引入的。As none of these gene sources are plant pest risks,美国农业部取消了转基因火炬松的管制,这种火炬松不用进行环境研究就可以种植。.

杨树也被改良以容易分解木质素,这通常是通过广泛的化学和能源密集型程序从木材中清除。科学家们将阿魏酸的基因插入细胞中,使其与木质素结合,从而在化学结构中形成弱点。The new lignin can be readily broken when treated with a mild base and high temperature4.因此,转基因杨树很容易加工成工业用途。

转基因树抗击入侵威胁

对树木进行工程改造,使其更能适应不断变化的气候,更好地抵御病虫害,是保持森林和树木健康的关键。Here are some of the most important GM trees.

木瓜环斑病抗病毒木瓜

Hawaii in 1997 suffered a devastating economic loss of nearly 40% due to the prevalence of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV).1998年,美国政府机构(环境保护署)为木瓜产业节省了1700万美元。食品药品监督管理局and USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [APHIS]) approval of GM papaya Rainbow resistant to the PRSV disease.来自康奈尔大学和夏威夷大学的研究人员通过表达病毒来源的外壳蛋白基因,开发出了抗药性木瓜。四年之内,木瓜产量恢复到前一水平.9月2日,一个额外的PRSV木瓜x1'7-2在美国被解除管制,二千零九6.In 2016,GM papaya occupies 1,000 hectares in Hawaii,中国面积8475公顷.

抗虫杨

在中国,poplar trees are cultivated for use in furniture,造船,纸,chopstick and many others because of its flexibility and close wood grain.亚洲长角甲虫的出现摧毁了中国704万公顷的杨树。2003,China commercialized GM poplar trees that containCRY1A基因来源于Bacillus thuringiensisand later with a proteinase inhibitor from射手座to control the beetle8.  In 2016,a total of 543 hectares GM poplar was cultivated in China.

抗病毒李子

2007,the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) deregulated C5 "HoneySweet" plum tree engineered to be resistant to the plum pox virus through the introduction of virus-derived coat protein gene.The HoneySweet Plum was issued a letter of "no further questions" by the US FDA in January 2009,这实际上是批准使用。美国环保署在8月8日前有条件地登记了这棵树。2011。While not made commercially available as of August 2013,美国农业部提议,如果需要抗击梅毒的话,可以让这棵树上市。

抗枯萎的美国栗子

Cryphonectria parasiticais the causal organism of the chestnut blight disease that extremely affected the American chestnut forest by the late 19th century.研究人员发现,板栗枯萎病是由病原体在感染过程中释放的草酸引起的。通过转移一个编码草酸盐氧化酶的小麦基因,纽约州立大学(锡拉丘兹)和乔治亚大学的研究人员,能够培育出抗枯萎的栗树。这些转基因小麦树的田间试验,顺基因生物技术板栗(含有从中国板栗到美国板栗树的抗性基因)as well as hybrids of Asiatic and American chestnut trees conducted in May 2013 were promising.美国农业部批准,美国环保署FDA需要进行实地试验。获得这些批准的过程预计至少需要5年时间。研究人员预计,在批准之前,他们可以种植多达10000棵树。11.

柑橘抗绿化柑橘

A new disease in citrus caused by the bacteria亚洲自由念珠菌and spread by psyllids was recorded in the early 70's.这种病把桔子变成绿色,畸形的,还有苦味的水果。美国和海外已经损失了数百万英亩的柑橘作物,and 80% of Florida's citrus trees are infected and declining.细菌性疾病在树根中孵化,用力向后移动后备箱,使营养液流动受阻。Florida's US$5.1 billion citrus industry could be a complete loss unless it soon finds a way to fight the disease.Cocktails of chemical sprays to kill the vector psyllids are no longer effective.A Texas A&M scientist,with funds from Southern Gardens – a large citrus growing company – inserted a spinach gene to fight the bacteria.A five-year successive small field trials of the transgenic trees have shown high degree of resistance.2013年成功完成了一项为期两年的第二代和第三代树木的大型试验。南方花园正在寻求解除对这些橘子的管制以供免费使用,anticipating first comercial planting in three to four years12.

逆温转基因树

一种耐极低温的转基因桉树是由乔木原培育的。Inc.2010年在美国被解除管制。转基因树包含一个冷诱导启动子,驱动来自拟南芥.在8个不同冷冻温度的地点进行了21个重复的田间试验,对所选转基因株进行了测试。转基因抗冻桉树在16.8英尺的温度下可以长到52.4英尺。与生长只有0.3英尺的对照树相比。There is no evidence from the literature or from the field trials which indicated that GM eucalyptus event EH1-427 would be invasive or negatively impact endangered species十三.

消费者通用树

新一代转基因特性的目标是消费者偏好。The "non-browning apple" Arctic® Apple from Okanagan Specialty Fruits of Canada is the first GM tree with consumer-targeted trait to be commercialized.Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) renders the apple brown upon oxidation when bruised,咬,或切割。因此,转基因苹果是通过沉默三个主要的多酚氧化酶基因而发展起来的,使得苹果几乎没有PPO酶。这样细胞分裂不会导致褐变。14.2015年2月,Arctic®苹果(奶奶和金色品种)获得了美国农业部动植物检疫局的商业批准。十五以及到2016年的富士品种。这些苹果的首次商业收获始于2016年,并于2017年在北美销售。2016年种植了约70000株Arctic®苹果树。十六.

未来

Future GM trees will continue to contain traits for feedstock biofuels,timber industry,to resist pest and diseases,为了保护受污染的环境(植物修复);具有耐旱、耐盐等新特性。It can be foreseen that R&D of GM forest trees will develop even faster in the near future and there is no doubt that GM forest trees will be grown on a large scale in plantation forestry and for land reclamation in China,巴西和美国只要在未来几年克服一些技术障碍。在许多国家,为了确保商业化前的环境安全,还需要制定转基因树木种植法规。

工具书类

  1. Futuragene的桉树被批准用于巴西的商业用途。2015。http://www.futuragene.com/FuturaGene-eucalyptus-approved-for-commercial-use.pdf
  2. USDA Approves Genetically Modified Trees for Trial Planting.2010。http://gmo-journal.com/index.php/2010/05/15/usda-approves-genetic-modified-trees-for-trial-planning/
  3. Capital Press.2015。美国农业部不能限制转基因松树。1月28日。2015。http://www.capitalpress.com/timber/20150128/usda-cannot-restrict-gmo-pine
  4. 威尔克森CGSD曼斯菲尔德F Lu,S Withers,J-Y Park,SD Karlen,E Gonzales-Vigil,D Padmakshan,芬达J雷诺科尔还有J Ralph。2014。阿魏酸单木质素转移酶将化学不稳定的键引入木质素主链。科学344(6179):90-93。http://www.sciencemag.org/content/344/6179/90
  5. 夏威夷种植的木瓜。2015。彩虹木瓜的故事。
    网址:http://www.hawaiipaya.com/rainbow.htmlaccessed May 24,2015。
  6. 美国农业部。2009。Finding of no significant impact.佛罗里达大学(University of Florida)x17-2番木瓜非管制地位申请书。http://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs2/04_33701p_ea.pdf
  7. 威廉希尔ISAAA2016.2016年生物技术/转基因作物商业化的全球状况。威廉希尔ISAAA简报52。威廉希尔ISAAAIthacaNY.网址:http://w威廉希尔ww.isaaa.org
  8. 粮农组织,2003。Advances in tree engineering in China.2003。
    网址:http://www.fao.org/docrep/article/wfc/xii/0280-b2.htm
  9. APHIS,2007。USDA-ARS请求的批准,寻求确定C5李子抗梅毒的非调节状态。http://www.aphis.usda.gov/brs/aphisdocs/04 p_ea.pdf.
  10. 《经济学人》。2013.基因改造的树木——进入野外。2013.http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21577033-gm-species-may-soon-be-releated-integrated-wildwood,二千零一十三
  11. ARS Technica.2014。转基因树可以拯救美国板栗免受入侵真菌的侵袭。http://arstechnica.com/science/2014/11/gmo-trees-can-rescue-american-chestnut-from-vigative-furms/科学/2014/11/gmo-trees-can-rescue-american-chestnut/
  12. Food Safety News.2013.USDA Steps up citrus greening fight as GMO fix looks promising.http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2013/12/usda-steps-up-citrus-greening-fight-that-ultimately-may-require-a-gmo-fix/#.VV7AuPmqqko,2013.
  13. Hinchee,MC张S Chang,M CunninghamW哈蒙德和N尼赫拉。2011。生物技术桉树可以持续满足社会对木材的需求:美国东南部耐旱桉树的例子。BioMed Central Proceedings 2011 (5 Suppl 7):124.http://www.biomedcentral.com/1753-6561/5/S7/I24/
  14. 奥卡纳根特色水果。到了布朗宁的底部,and how to solve it.http://www.okspecialityfruits.com/arctic-apples/browning-and-nonbrowning-science,accessed May 24,2015。
  15. 新闻稿:非褐变北极®苹果将获得批准。http://www.arctic apples.com/blog/joel/press release nonbrowning arctic%c2%ae苹果获得批准/
  16. 英特利森公司2016.First ever commercial harvest of Okanagan Specialty Fruits Arctic® Golden Apples Completed.http://investors.dna.com/2016-10-03-first-ever-commercial-harvest-of-okanagan-specialty-fruits-arctic-golden-apples-completed/完成

更新日期:2017年9月

Next Pocket K:生物技术作物与非生物技术作物共存